Convert CHU/ft³ [CHU/ft³] to Btu (th)/ft³ [Btu (th)/ft³] • Specific Energy Converter, Heat of Combustion Converter (by Volume) • Thermodynamics — Heat • Compact Calculator • Unit line converters online (2023)

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Distance CHU/pie3 [CHU/ft3] in Btu (th)/pie3 [Btu (th)/ft3

1 CHU/pé³ [CHU/ft³] = 1,80120460683876 Btu (th)/pie³ [Btu (th)/ft³]

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Definitions and Units of Measure

specific energy

Specific fuel consumption

units of measurement

Lower and upper calorific value

Measurement of the energy content of a fuel.

The specific energy and heat of combustion per volume converter is used to convert units of various physical quantities used to quantify the energy property in various applications.

Definitions and Units of Measure

specific energy

The amount of energy stored per unit volume in a system or region or the energy content of fuels per unit volume is described byenergy density. When we talk about energy per unit mass, it saysspecific energy.

This is how energy density, specific energy and heat of combustion characterize a substance or a thermodynamic system. However, energy density and specific energy can be used to describe a system in which no fuel combustion occurs. For example, energy can be stored in a non-rechargeable lithium battery or rechargeable lithium ion battery in the form of chemical energy, or in a supercapacitor or even an electrical transformer in the form of electromagnetic field energy.

Electrical transformers and capacitors can store energy for short periods of time and can be characterized by energy density.

Specific fuel consumption

On the other hand,Specific fuel consumptionis a measure of the fuel efficiency of any engine that burns fuel to produce electricity, such as B. a car engine (Brake-specific fuel consumption) or thrust, like a jet engine (Thrust specific fuel consumption). The word "brake" in the term "brake-specific fuel consumption" indicates that this is determined on the absorption test bench, which is used to measure braking torque and power. A braking device is the main part of the dynamometer.

The technical term "thrust specific fuel consumption" describes the fuel efficiency of any engine that burns fuel to produce thrust, e.g. Note that turboprop and turboshaft engines used in aircraft are described by brake specific fuel consumption

Öspecific fuel consumption per volumeIt is measured in units of volumetric fuel consumption per unit of energy. Examples are liters per kilowatt hour or gallons/horsepower per hour. To convert units of specific fuel consumption to mass, use our Specific Fuel Consumption to Mass Converter. For example, a specific fuel consumption of 100 g/kW∙h means that an engine uses 100 grams of fuel per hour to generate 1 kilowatt of power. The same value of 100 g/kW∙h also means that the same engine uses 100 g of fuel to do one kilowatt hour of useful work.

units of measurement

Övolumetric energy densityit is measured in units of energy per unit volume, e.g. B. Joules per cubic meter (J/m³) or BTUs per cubic foot (Btu/ft³).

Consequently, units like J/m³, J/L, kcal/m³, BTU/ft³ are used to measure various physical quantities that have a lot in common. They are used for measuring

• the specific energy content of the fuel by volume;
• heat of combustion per volume;
• the volumetric energy density in a thermodynamic system.

Fuels react with the oxygen in the air and generate a relatively large amount of heat. The amount of energy produced during the combustion of fuel depends on the type of fuel, the conditions under which it is burned, and the mass or volume of fuel burned. For example, partially oxidized fuel such as ethanol (C₂H₅OH) is less efficient than pure hydrocarbons such as kerosene (approximate composition C1₀H22) or gasoline (gasoline). Energy is usually measured in joules (J), calories (cal), or British Thermal Units (BTUs). The specific energy or heat content of fuel combustion is the energy gained when a unit volume or a unit mass of the fuel is burned.

The calorific value of a fuel can be expressed in the following quantities:

• Energy/mole of fuel, e.g. B. kJ/mol
• Energy/mass of fuel, for example BTU/lb
• Amount of energy/fuel, e.g. kcal/m³

Guess what these two photos have in common? The energy value of food and fuel is measured using the same method: they are burned in a calorimeter.

The same units and amounts and even measurement methods (bomb calorimeters) are used to measure the energy value of food, calorific value being the amount of heat released when a given amount of food is burned. Please note that this converter is only for converting volumetric quantities.

Lower and upper calorific value

The heat of combustion measured depends on what happens to the water produced during combustion. Remember that it takes a lot of heat to vaporize water, and the same amount of heat is released when that vapor condenses. If the water is still vapor, it cannot give off any heat when it transitions into the liquid phase. SoNet heat (or less) of combustionit is measured. However, if the water condenses back to the original temperature of the fuel, then thehigher heat of combustionit is measured. The internal combustion engine cannot use the extra energy available when the steam is condensed back into water. Therefore, a net or lower heat of combustion is more appropriate, and many engine manufacturers classify engine fuel consumption according to lower (net) heat values. However, US manufacturers generally rate their engines according to the highest heat output. The difference between the upper and lower heating values ​​of the fuel is normally 10%. That's not much, but it can be confusing if the measurement method isn't specified in the engine specs.

Note that the higher and lower heating values ​​of the fuel are only suitable for hydrogen-containing fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel. Upper and lower calorific values ​​cannot be defined for the combustion of pure carbon or carbon monoxide, since they contain no hydrogen and consequently no water is produced during the combustion process of these substances.

When fuel is burned in the engine, the actual amount of mechanical work extracted from the fuel is highly engine dependent. Gasoline engines are less efficient than diesel engines. Passenger car diesel engines are typically 30-40% energy efficient and gasoline engines only 20-30%.

Measurement of the energy content of a fuel.

The heat of fuel combustion is useful when comparing different fuels. In most cases, the energy content of the fuel or feedstock is obtained in a constant volume oxygen bomb calorimeter. The heat of combustion or calorific value of a weighted mass of sample is defined as the amount of heat released from a unit mass of sample when combusted with oxygen in a constant volume space.

These calorimeters contain a pressure vessel called a bomb, which is filled with pressurized pure oxygen and a sample of fuel whose energy content is measured. The amount of oxygen exceeds that required to completely burn the sample. The pressure vessel can withstand the high pressure of the combustion products in the device during fuel combustion. During combustion, all of the carbon and hydrogen in the burning fuel react with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. When combustion is not complete, carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned or partially burned fuel are released, resulting in lower energy content.

The energy released when a fuel sample burns in the pressure vessel is absorbed within the calorimeter and the resulting temperature change is measured within the calorimeter's absorbing medium (usually water). The heat of combustion is calculated from this temperature difference and the results of calibration tests with a standardized material.

Each bomb calorimeter contains several essential parts:

a bomb calorimeter

• a strong, thick-walled metal pump or pressure vessel in which the chemical reaction takes place (4);
• a calorimeter bucket: a container with a highly polished outer surface in which the bomb is placed in water (5); the polished surface is required to reduce heat exchange between the calorimeter and the laboratory environment;
• an agitator;
• a thermally insulating jacket protecting the calorimeter container with the pump from external temperature fluctuations (7);
• a temperature sensor or thermometer that measures temperature changes within the calorimeter cell (1);
• an electric igniter with fusible wire and electrodes (6) for igniting the fuel in the sample cup (3) installed in the pressure vessel (4); Is
• an oxygen inlet (O₂) (2).

Because combustion reactions in an oxygen bomb calorimeter produce high pressures for short periods, measurements can be dangerous. The calorimeter, its valves and ignition electrodes must always be kept in good condition. The weight of the sample must not exceed the maximum allowable weight.

Energy content of various fuels in BTU/gallon

CombustibleEnergy content, BTU/gallon
Biodiesel117.000
Diesel129.000
Äthanol76.000
Petrol115.000
hydrogen113.000
Kerosene119.000
Kerosene128.000
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)75.000
Liquefied petroleum gas, propane (LPG)84.000

Thrust specific fuel consumption is a measure of the fuel efficiency of any engine that burns fuel to produce thrust, like this space shuttle.AtlantisMotor.

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compact calculator complete calculator unit definitions

Unit converter online Thermodynamics - Heat

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Thermodynamics - Heat

thermodynamicsIt is the branch of physics that deals with heat and its relationship to other forms of energy and work. Defines thermodynamic variables (such as temperature, entropy, and pressure; also called macroscopic variables) that describe the average properties of material bodies and radiation, and explains how they are related and why laws change over time.

Specific Energy Converter, Heat of Combustion (by Volume)

Specific Energy (by volume)It is defined as energy per unit volume. Common units are J/m³ or cal/cm³. The concept of specific energy refers to a specific (e.g. transportation) or theoretical way of extracting useful energy from fuel.

Use of specific energy, heat of combustion (by volume) converter converter

This online unit converter provides fast and accurate conversions between many units of measurement from one system to another. The unit conversion page provides a solution for engineers, translators and anyone whose job requires working with quantities measured in different units.

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You can use this online converter to convert hundreds of units (including metric, imperial, and US) in 76 categories or several thousand pairs, including acceleration, area, electricity, energy, force, length, light, mass, mass flow, Density, specific volume, power, pressure, voltage, temperature, time, torque, speed, viscosity, volume and capacity, volume flow and much more.
Monitoring:Whole numbers (numbers without a decimal point or exponential notation) are considered accurate up to 15 digits, and the maximum number of digits after the decimal point is 10.

In this calculator, the notation E is used to represent very small or very large numbers.Notation miis an alternative format of scientific notation a 10X. For example: 1,103,000 = 1,103 * 106= 1.103E+6. Here E (of the exponent) stands for "· 10^", i.e. "ten times high“. Electronic notation is commonly used on calculators and by scientists, mathematicians, and engineers.

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• Alternatively, you can enter the value on the rightForbox and read the conversion result in the boxVonmiResultboxing

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