CRISPR 101: Designing Plant Genomes Using CRISPR/Cas9 (2023)

Originally posted by Benoit Giquel on October 11, 2016 and last updated on December 22, 2020.

CRISPR technologyIt has taken the world of genome engineering by storm due to its ease of use and applicability in a variety of organisms. While much of the current focus of CRISPR research is on its potential applications in human medicine (Waltz, 2016), the potential of CRISPR lies inplant genomicsis also being implemented. There are a number of reasons to consider using genome editing to change a plant's genetic code, including developing crops with a longer lifespan.Develop disease resistant crops to increase agricultural yields (Wang et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2014)Although it is certainly possible to select for desirable traits using traditional plant breeding methods, these techniques are cumbersome and often require multiple rounds of selection to isolate plants with the phenotype of interest. Genome engineering, on the other hand, allows for the targeted modification of genes known or suspected to regulate desired phenotypes. In fact, CRISPR has been used to engineer the genomes of many plant species, including common model organisms such as Arabidopsis and alfalfa, and various crop species such as potato, maize, tomato, wheat, mushrooms, and rice (Khatodia et al., 2016). ) .Despite the near universal role of the CRISPR system in most organisms, some plant-specific changes to CRISPR components are required for genome editing in plant cells.

This blog post will provide an overview of plant genome engineering using CRISPR, highlight the specific modifications of the CRISPR machinery that enable the use of CRISPR in plants, and provide an overview of the various plant genome engineering tools available for academic researchers through Addgene.

CRISPR components for plant genome engineering

CRISPR can be used to knock out, activate, or suppress target genes in plants using the same general principles of experimental design developed in other model organisms (see ourCRISPR Guidefor common CRISPR principles). However, to use the CRISPR system in plant cells, plant-specific modifications of commonly used CRISPR plasmids are necessary. Like other model systems, the expression isStreptococcus pyogenesCas9 or Cas9 variants (hereinafter referred to as Cas9) and single-stranded guide RNA (gRNA) are sufficient to modify the genome of plant cells. The structure of a gRNA (consisting of a ~20 nucleotide targeting sequence and a ~75 nucleotide scaffold sequence) is consistent between plants and other organisms, but the promoter used to drive gRNA expression depends on cell types. discussed. In plant cells, gRNA expression is achieved by placing the gRNA downstream of a plant-specific RNA pol III promoter (eg, AtU6, TaU6, OsU6, or OsU3), commonly used to drive RNA expression. small in their respective species. Addgene has >30"Empty gRNA" skeletonIt contains the plant pol III promoter and gRNA scaffold sequences and allows researchers to insert targeted oligonucleotides with minimal cloning. As with other model systems, multiple gRNAs can be expressed to simultaneously modify multiple genomic loci (Learn more about gRNA multiplexing here).

(Video) CRISPR Explained

Cas9 is often tagged with a nuclear localization sequence to improve targeting to the nucleus, and several codon-optimized Cas9 variants have been created to improve translation in specific plant species or cell types (Belhaj et al., 2013). .)Activators (such as dCas9-VP64) or repressors (dCas9-KRAB or dCas9-SRDX) based on nuclease-dead Cas9 (dCas9) can also be used to activate or repress target genes in plant cells, respectively. Cas9 expression is generally driven by a plant-derived RNA pol II promoter, which regulates the expression of larger RNAs, such as mRNA for gene expression. Examples of commonly used RNA pol II promoters for Cas9 expression include the ubiquitously expressed cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV 35S) or the ubiquitin promoter (Belhaj et al., 2013).Addgene carries a plasmid containing Cas9 for gene knockout,activationyinhibitiontarget genes in plants and many of the aboveempty gRNA backboneIt also contains Cas9, which allows simultaneous expression of Cas9 and gRNA on the same plasmid.

Delivery of CRISPR components to plant cells

Once you've selected the correct CRISPR components for your application, they can be shipped to their destination cells. Remember that efficient delivery of CRISPR components is critical to any CRISPR experiment, and lack of gRNA or Cas9 expression in your cell line will result in experimental failure. CRISPR components can be stably or transiently expressed, depending on the method of delivery and the particular cell type. CRISPR components can be transiently delivered and expressed using the standard detergent polyethylene glycol (PEG), although the use of this method is limited to protoplasts (plant cells that have had their cell walls removed). Another common delivery method is Agrobacterium-mediated delivery.,uses soil-derived bacteriaINAgrobacterium tumefaciensAs a vector to deliver your gene of interest to a target cell line or organism (shown in Figure 1). For more informationagrobacteria-mediated transformation can be found hereblog post.This herepDGE Dicot Genome Editing KitofLaboratorios StuttmanContains a range ofCompatible con Agrobacterium, Cas9-containing vectors can be used for Golden Gate-mediated cloning of your gRNA of interest.

The last years,Deaminase-mediated base editing(cytosine base editor or adenine base editor) and mediated by reverse transcriptasechief editorThe technology has proven to be an excellent alternative to genome editing, especially in human cells. otherwisehomology-directed repair, these methods do not involve double-strand break (DSB) formation and do not require donor DNA. These precise edits tend to be more effective than HDR (Reviewed by Zhu et al., 2019Cytosine base editors and adenine base editors have beendeveloped for plantsPlant's editor-in-chief has beendeveloped for ricefrom the Yiping Qi laboratory andfor rice and wheatdel laboratorio Caixia Gaos.

Newly developed methods can also be used to efficiently deliver CRISPR-Cas9 components to factories. Nanoparticles (carbon nanotubes, Kwak et al., 2019), DNA nanostructures (Zhang et al., 2019) or cell-penetrating peptides (Santana et al., 2020) and plant viruses (barley yellow mosaic virus (Gao et al., 2019) or sonchus yellow net rhabdovirus (Ma et al., 2020) have been shown to be effective methods to deliver CRISPR-Cas9 to plant cells and should be considered as alternatives to PEG- or Agrobacterium-mediated delivery.


Although it differs in many details (the promoter used, the precise sequence or domain of the protein, and the method of delivery), the technology underlying CRISPR-mediated plant genome engineering is not that different from how it is used in other systems. Fortunately, you don't have to search for plasmids with the plant-specific modifications you need for your favorite plant genes; you can find many for a variety of CRISPR applications in plantsAvailable via AddgeneIn addition to the above plasmids, Addgene comes with several useful CRISPR kits for making plant expression plasmids, including plant CRISPR.Plasmider fra Yiping Qi's laboratoriumyMoClo Plant Parts KitFrom Patron Labs. As with all plasmids in the repository, we strongly recommend reading the appropriate publications or protocols to get the most out of the plasmid you choose for your experiments, but if you're working with plants, don't be afraid to try it yourself on CRISPR .

CRISPR 101: Designing Plant Genomes Using CRISPR/Cas9 (3)


(Video) Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9

Belhaj K, Chaparro-Garcia A, Kamoun S, Nekrasov V (2013) Plant genome editing made easy: site-directed mutagenesis in culture and model plants using the CRISPR/Cas system. Plant Methods 9:39.

Gao Q, Xu W, Yan T, Fang X, Cao Q, Zhang Z, Ding Z, Wang Y, Wang X (2019) Plant cell baculovirus rescue as a versatile expression platform for cereal and hop genome investigation of floors. Neophytol 223:2120-2133.

Gelvin SB (2003) Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation: the biology behind the 'genetic engineering' tool. MMBR 67:16–37.

Khatodia S, Bhatotia K, Passricha N, Khurana SMP, Tuteja N (2016) CRISPR/Cas genome editing tools: applications for crop improvement. Frontiers in Plant Science 7:.

Kwak S-Y, Lew TTS, Sweeney CJ, Koman VB, Wong MH, Bohmert-Tatarev K, Snell KD, Seo JS, Chua N-H, Strano MS (2019) Chloroplast-selective gene delivery and expression by carbon nanotube vectors. National Nanotechnology 14:447–455.

Lowder LG, Zhang D, Baltes NJ, Paul JW III, Tang X, Zheng X, Voytas DF, Hsieh T-F, Zhang Y, Qi Y (2015) A CRISPR/Cas9 toolkit for multiplex plant genome editing and regulation transcriptional. Plant Physiology 169:971-985.

(Video) Jennifer Doudna: CRISPR Basics

Ma X, Zhang X, Liu H, Li Z (2020) Efficient DNA-free plant genome editing using virus-transmitted CRISPR-Cas9. Natural Plants 6: 773–779.

Santana I, Wu H, Hu P, Giraldo JP (2020) Targeted delivery of nanomaterials and chemical loads in plants through biorecognition motifs. Common Nat 11:.

Wang F, Wang C, Liu P, Lei C, Hao W, Gao Y, Liu Y-G, Zhao K (2016) Enhancement of blast resistance in rice through CRISPR/Cas9-directed mutagenesis of the factor gene. ERF OsERF922 transcript. PloScience One 11:e0154027.

Wang Y, Cheng X, Shan Q, Zhang Y, Liu J, Gao C, Qiu J-L (2014) Coedition of three homologous alleles in hexaploid bread wheat confers genetic resistance to powdery mildew. National Biotechnology 32:947-951.

Waltz E (2016) Gene-edited CRISPR mushrooms escape US regulation. Nature 532: 293–293.

Zhang H, Demirer GS, Zhang H, Ye T, Goh NS, Aditham AJ, Cunningham FJ, Fan C, Landry MP (2019) DNA nanostructures coordinate replication in mature plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116:7543–7548.

(Video) CRISPR Cas9 : How CRISPR can be performed in the lab ?

Zhu H, Li C, Gao C (2020) CRISPR-Cas Applications in Agriculture and Plant Biotechnology. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biology 21:661-677.

Additional resources on the Addgene blog

  • FileCRISPR multiplexing tool
  • Validate your genome edits
  • Design your gRNA

Additional resources at

  • seeking outplant CRISPR plasmid
  • read ourCRISPR Guide
  • seeking outgRNA validated for your next experiment

he:CRISPR technology,plantebiologi,CRISPR 101

(Video) CRISPR Base Editor and Prime Editor Toolbox and Applications



How is CRISPR-Cas9 used in plants? ›

DNA or RNA encoding CRISPR–Cas reagents can be introduced into the genomes of plant viruses, which infect plant cells, replicate in them and move to other cells through plasmodesmata. Chloroplast-targeted delivery can be achieved using biolistic bombardment and nanoparticles.

What is the CRISPR-Cas9 system for plant genome editing? ›

Genome editing with CRISPR-Cas9 is amendable to edit any gene in any plant species. Because of its simplicity, efficiency, low cost, and the possibility to target multiple genes, it allows faster genetic modification than other techniques. It also can be used to genetically modify plants that were previously neglected.

What are the 4 main steps of the CRISPR-Cas9 system? ›

Several steps to use the CRISPR-CAS9 system for gene editing and genetic engineering are:
  • Select an organism for the experiment.
  • Select a gene of the target location.
  • Select a CRISPR-CAS9 system.
  • Select and Design the sgRNA.
  • Synthesizing and cloning of sgRNA.
  • Delivering the sgRNA and CAS9.
  • Validating the experiment.
Aug 3, 2020

How is CRISPR-Cas9 used to edit genomes? ›

CRISPR/Cas9 edits genes by precisely cutting DNA and then letting natural DNA repair processes to take over. The system consists of two parts: the Cas9 enzyme and a guide RNA. Rapidly translating a revolutionary technology into transformative therapies.

Can CRISPR make plants grow faster? ›

CRISPR gene editing might be used to defend against pests, or make crops or animals grow bigger, faster.

How can CRISPR help plants survive disease? ›

CRISPR research is also currently being used to engineer viruses that can target certain bacteria before they are able to infect crops. This is particularly useful for the citrus food industry which is at risk from diseases such as the 'citrus greening disease'.

What are examples of Crispr CAS9 in plants? ›

Currently, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing has been demonstrated to be successful on a number of influential crops such as maize (Liu et al., 2020; Li et al., 2020b), wheat (Hayta et al., 2019; Liu et al., 2020), and apples (Pompili et al., 2020), with a relatively high transformation efficiency (Haque et al., 2018; ...

What plants has CRISPR been used on? ›

Researchers are actively working on this, and have discovered some DNA variants that increase crop resilience to extreme environments, including drought. They are using CRISPR tools to make these changes in important staple crops like corn, wheat, rice, and sugarcane.

What is the use of genome editing in plants? ›

Genome editing tools have the potential to change the genomic architecture of a genome at precise locations, with desired accuracy. These tools have been efficiently used for trait discovery and for the generation of plants with high crop yields and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.

What are the 7 steps of CRISPR? ›

Step-by-Step Guide on Using CRISPR:
  • Decide which gene to modify (cut, activate or inhibit). ...
  • Decide which endonuclease protein to use. ...
  • Design the gRNA to target the gene of interest. ...
  • Assemble the gRNA Expression Vector in your browser. ...
  • Assemble the plasmid at the bench! ...
  • Engineer the Cells!
Apr 26, 2018

How does CRISPR work for dummies? ›

CRISPR stands for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats. It is a component of bacterial immune systems that can cut DNA, and has been repurposed as a gene editing tool. It acts as a precise pair of molecular scissors that can cut a target DNA sequence, directed by a customizable guide.

What are the 3 main things you can do with CRISPR? ›

There are different ways to do this, such as:
  • Attacking the cancer. Some scientists have used CRISPR to supercharge the immune system's T cells. ...
  • Turning off cancer's defenses. T cells aren't supposed to attack normal cells. ...
  • Slowing down cancer. Another lab used CRISPR to change genes in cancer cells.
Jan 27, 2022

Is CRISPR a powerful tool for editing genomes? ›

CRISPR is a powerful tool for editing genomes, meaning it allows researchers to easily alter DNA sequences and modify gene function.

What is the difference between CRISPR and gene editing? ›

The two systems also differ in how they 'cut' into DNA strands. CRISPR-Cas9 removes both strands at the place they make an edit, while prime editing only nicks one of the two strands of DNA. While CRISPR has been used in many settings, prime editing is still at an early stage of proof of principle.

What are the ethical problems with CRISPR? ›

Here we review fundamental ethical issues including the following: 1) the extent to which CRISPR use should be permitted; 2) access to CRISPR applications; 3) whether a regulatory framework(s) for clinical research involving human subjects might accommodate all types of human genome editing, including editing of the ...

What are the risks of CRISPR in agriculture? ›

Two recent independent studies found that cells genetically engineered with CRISPR “have the potential to seed tumors”, or may initiate mutations that develop into tumors.

What is the cost of CRISPR? ›

Taking into account broader societal benefits of curing the disease, ICER said a price range between $1.3 million and $1.9 million would be cost effective.

What diseases could CRISPR get rid of in the future? ›

  • Diabetes.
  • Gene editing.
  • Gene therapy.
  • Kidney disease.
  • Liver disease.
  • mRNA technology.
Oct 7, 2022

What crops are CRISPR resistant to drought? ›

Research is also under way using CRISPR-based gene editing to improve drought tolerance in wheat, cassava, papaya, sugarcane and cotton.

What diseases can be cured using CRISPR? ›

CRISPR technology has also been successful in treating a pediatric patient with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, showing feasibility of its use for cancer immunotherapy.

What are the limitations of CRISPR-Cas9? ›

These drawbacks include a lack of on-target editing efficiency [215], incomplete editing (mosaicism) [216, 217], and inaccurate on-target or off-target editing [218, 219]. CRISPR experiments with animals and human cell lines have revealed these limitations.

Can you CRISPR a plant? ›

But each of these functions could only be performed independently in plants. Now, scientists from the University of Maryland's College of Agriculture and Natural Resources have developed CRISPR-Combo , a method to edit multiple genes in plants while simultaneously changing the expression of other genes.

What are the two types of CRISPR-Cas9? ›

CRISPR-Cas9 may be widely known as a gene-editing tool, but it is just one in a complicated CRISPR world. There are two main classes of CRISPR systems, class 1 and class 2, which are further divided into different types.

What is the most controversial use of CRISPR? ›

DNA replacement in human embryos (germline genome therapy) The most controversial usage of CRISPR-Cas9 is the modification of human embryo DNA, or, in other words, its use for germline genome therapy.

Why is CRISPR better than GMO? ›

Edmisten says it's cheaper and more precise than GMO technology. "In the cases of using it for site-directed mutation, at least in the U.S so far, they're nor requiring regulatory for that because it's no different than using radiation to cause a mutation, or just looking for mutations within a species," he says.

What are the pros and cons of gene editing in agriculture? ›

Advantages of GMO foods include added nutrients, fewer pesticides, and cheaper prices. Disadvantages of GMO foods can be allergic reactions or increased antibiotic resistance.

What are the disadvantages of genome editing in plants? ›

  • Genome edited crops pose marginal risk to the economy, human health and the environment.
  • Existing national regulations work to discourage genome editing in many countries.
  • Advocacy groups tend to discourage the use of new gene technologies in agriculture based on speculative risks.

What are the disadvantages of gene editing in plants? ›

Critics contend that genome editing can create a range of changes to the genome in plants that pose risks to biodiversity, water and soil, human health, and organic food production. Some are concerned that such crops could outcompete natural species and create broad monocultures, which could wreak havoc on ecosystems.

How do we alter the genome of a plant? ›

For GM plants, the bacterium most frequently used is called Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The gene of interest is transferred into the bacterium and the bacterial cells then transfer the new DNA to the genome of the plant cells. The plant cells that have successfully taken up the DNA are then grown to create a new plant.

What are the three types of CRISPR? ›

Three major types of CRISPR-Cas systems are at the top of the classification hierarchy. The three types are readily distinguishable by virtue of the presence of three unique signature genes: Cas3 in type I systems, Cas9 in type II, and Cas10 in type III [5].

How do I start CRISPR? ›

So How Do You Get Started With CRISPR?
  1. Choose Your Guide. First, decide what you want to achieve! ...
  2. Get It Into Your Cells. The next trick is to get the gRNA(s) into your cells. ...
  3. Check Your Cells. At this point, you need to find out if your CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing strategy is working. ...
  4. Go Clonal.

What is CRISPR in simple words? ›

CRISPR (short for “clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats”) is a technology that research scientists use to selectively modify the DNA of living organisms. CRISPR was adapted for use in the laboratory from naturally occurring genome editing systems found in bacteria.

What is the most commonly used enzyme in CRISPR? ›

Conventional CRISPR complexes include an enzyme called Cas9, which recognizes and cuts a target stretch of DNA.

How does CRISPR cut DNA? ›

The CRISPR-Cas9 system consists of two key molecules that introduce a change (mutation?) into the DNA. These are: an enzyme? called Cas9. This acts as a pair of 'molecular scissors' that can cut the two strands of DNA at a specific location in the genome so that bits of DNA can then be added or removed.

Can I use CRISPR on myself? ›

“Right now, if you wanted to, you can buy any of the material you need. It's the same material used in clinical trials, the same material that's used by drug companies. [You can] buy it and use it to genetically modify yourself” by claiming to order it for “research purposes,” Zayner explained.

How does CRISPR-Cas9 work step by step? ›

The mechanism of CRISPR/Cas-9 genome editing can be generally divided into three steps: recognition, cleavage, and repair. The designed sgRNA directs Cas-9 and recognizes the target sequence in the gene of interest through its 5ʹcrRNA complementary base pair component.

What are some real life examples of CRISPR? ›

CRISPR has been used to experiment with gene-edited mosquitos to reduce the spread of malaria, for engineering agriculture to withstand climate change, and in human clinical trials to treat a range of diseases, from cancer to transthyretin amyloidosis , a rare protein disorder that devastates nerves and organs.

What is the main disadvantage of using CRISPR for genome editing? ›

Human Health Risks: The primary risk associated with CRISPR/Cas9 technology is the potential for off-target genome editing effects. CRISPR/Cas9 technology can induce site- specific DNA mutations in human DNA.

What is the difference between CRISPR and CRISPR-Cas9? ›

The key difference between CRISPR and CRISPR Cas9 is that CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) is a naturally occurring prokaryotic immune defence mechanism while CRISPR cas9 is an RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease which is a part of the CRISPR adaptive immune system.

Is there something better than CRISPR? ›

Meganucleases also predate CRISPR-Cas9 technology. These naturally occurring, DNA-cleaving enzymes recognize DNA sequences that are ~20 bases in length and can be altered to recognize specific targets. Meganucleases are smaller than Cas9, which offers them some advantages for therapeutic applications.

Why is CRISPR not efficient? ›

In a study published in the journal Molecular Cell, the researchers showed that when gene editing using CRISPR fails, which occurs about 15 percent of the time, it is often due to persistent binding of the Cas9 protein to the DNA at the cut site, which blocks the DNA repair enzymes from accessing the cut.

Can CRISPR cause mutations? ›

"CRISPR-Cas9 can generate unexpected, heritable mutations." ScienceDaily.

Why is CRISPR so amazing? ›

A: CRISPR genome editing allows scientists to quickly create cell and animal models, which researchers can use to accelerate research into diseases such as cancer and mental illness. In addition, CRISPR is now being developed as a rapid diagnostic.

Does CRISPR edit DNA or RNA? ›

CRISPR/Cas9 edits genes by precisely cutting DNA and then letting natural DNA repair processes to take over. The system consists of two parts: the Cas9 enzyme and a guide RNA. Rapidly translating a revolutionary technology into transformative therapies.

Why is CRISPR gene editing controversial? ›

Crispr Gene Editing Can Cause Unwanted Changes in Human Embryos, Study Finds. Instead of addressing genetic mutations, the Crispr machinery prompted cells to lose entire chromosomes.

Can CRISPR replace an entire gene? ›

The new tool is called PASTE (Programmable Addition via Site-specific Targeting Elements), and it can essentially drag and drop an entire functional gene to replace the defective version, without inducing double-stranded DNA breaks.

What is the Crispr tool in plants? ›

CRISPR/Cas acts as a typical bacterial immune system that provides the bacteria with resistance to foreign genetic material. The CRISPR system comprises CRISPR RNA (crRNA), trans-activating CRISPR RNA (tracrRNA), the Cas9 nuclease, and the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) (Figure 5).

When was CRISPR used in plants? ›

Since the first use of CRISPR/Cas systems for plant gene editing in 2013, many researchers have focused on its application in increasing crop yield, quality, and stress resistance.

How does gene editing work in plants? ›

Genome editing allows plant breeders to make very precise changes to DNA. Genome editing can be used to make changes to a plant or other organism by targeting at a specific location in a gene within the DNA. Genome editing can be used to add, remove, or alter DNA in the plant genome.

What is CRISPR-Cas9 used for in nature? ›

In nature, bacteria use CRISPR as an adaptive immune system to protect themselves against viruses. Over the past decade, scientists have been able to successfully build upon that natural phenomenon with the discovery of CRISPR proteins found in bacteria — the most widely used of which is the Cas9 enzyme.

What are examples of Crispr Cas9 in plants? ›

Currently, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing has been demonstrated to be successful on a number of influential crops such as maize (Liu et al., 2020; Li et al., 2020b), wheat (Hayta et al., 2019; Liu et al., 2020), and apples (Pompili et al., 2020), with a relatively high transformation efficiency (Haque et al., 2018; ...

What tools are needed for CRISPR? ›

To use CRISPR, you will need both Cas9 and a gRNA expressed in your target cells. For easy-to-transfect cell types (e.g. HEK293 cells), transfection with standard transfection reagents may be sufficient to express the CRISPR machinery.

What are the limitations of Crispr Cas9? ›

These drawbacks include a lack of on-target editing efficiency [215], incomplete editing (mosaicism) [216, 217], and inaccurate on-target or off-target editing [218, 219]. CRISPR experiments with animals and human cell lines have revealed these limitations.

What is CRISPR-Cas9 in plant breeding? ›

The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a plant breeding innovation that uses site-directed nucleases to target and modify DNA with great accuracy.

How do you modify plant DNA? ›

For GM plants, the bacterium most frequently used is called Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The gene of interest is transferred into the bacterium and the bacterial cells then transfer the new DNA to the genome of the plant cells. The plant cells that have successfully taken up the DNA are then grown to create a new plant.

What is genome editing techniques in plants? ›

Gene editing in plant organelles was developed to efficiently promote point mutagenesis in chloroplasts and mitochondria using a protein-based system such as ZFN and TALEN. Although the CRISPR–Cas-derived techniques are highly effective for nuclear genome editing, they are not applicable for editing organellar DNA.

What is the most common use of CRISPR-Cas9? ›

To date, CRISPR-Cas9 has been commonly used to create gene editing in plants, animal, and human samples.

What is the most common application of CRISPR-Cas9? ›

CRISPR-Cas9 can be used to delete (KO) or insert (KI) genes, but with slight modifications, it can also be used to regulate the expression of genes. This is known as CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) and CRISPR interference (CRISPRi).

What organisms naturally have CRISPR? ›

It is present in about 50% of bacteria and 90% of archaea [3]. CRISPR-Cas acts by recompiling and storing genetic sequences from invader bacteriophages and noxious plasmids as spacers.


1. CRISPR 101
(Food Insight)
2. CRISPR 101: Optimizing Your Gene Editing Experiments
3. CRISPR/Cas9 based targeted mutagenesis in sorghum
4. Genome Engineering Using CRISPR Technology
(Icahn School of Medicine)
5. 11K - Gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9
(Useful Genetics)
6. Prime Editing - In almost less than a minute


Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Nathanial Hackett

Last Updated: 18/10/2023

Views: 6388

Rating: 4.1 / 5 (52 voted)

Reviews: 91% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Nathanial Hackett

Birthday: 1997-10-09

Address: Apt. 935 264 Abshire Canyon, South Nerissachester, NM 01800

Phone: +9752624861224

Job: Forward Technology Assistant

Hobby: Listening to music, Shopping, Vacation, Baton twirling, Flower arranging, Blacksmithing, Do it yourself

Introduction: My name is Nathanial Hackett, I am a lovely, curious, smiling, lively, thoughtful, courageous, lively person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.