ISC Chemistry Syllabus Class 11 2023-24 (PDF Download) (2023)


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CISCE has published the latest updated Year 11 syllabus for the new term 2023-24.Available in "ISC 2025 Syllabus and Rules

Grade 11DayThe curriculum is published by CISCE. It is important that teachers and students are aware of the changes and closely follow the topics covered in each subject in each class stream 11Day.

We have also updated Oswal Gurukul's books as per the latest thesis patterns prescribed by CISCE committee for each subject.

Students can click the link below to directly access the ISC Chemistry Syllabus for Class 11 for the 2023-24 academic year.

table of Contents

  • ISC Class 11 Chemistry Program 2023-24
    • ISC Chemistry Class 11 Latest Syllabus 2023-24
    • Paper I - Theory - 70 points
    • internal evaluation
    • Reduced Curriculum 2022-23

ISC Chemistry Class 11 Latest Syllabus 2023-24

There will be two articles on this topic:

paper one:Theory - 3 hours...70 minutes

Paper for:Practical - 3 hours...15 minutes
Work project... 10 points
Practical documents…5 points

Serial number unit gross weight
1. Some basic concepts of chemistry. Physicochemistry 32 points
2. atomic structure
3. Classification of elements and periodicity of properties
4. Chemical Bonds and Molecular Structure
5. State of matter: gas and liquid
6. chemical thermodynamics
7. balance
8. redox reactions Inorganic Chemistry 15 points
9. hydrogen
10 s - block elements
11 some elements of the p block
12 heat and thermodynamics Organic chemistry: some fundamentals and techniques.
13 hydrocarbon
14 enviromental chemistry
in 70 points

Paper I - Theory - 70 points

R. No. unit subject sub theme Fraction
1. Some basic concepts of chemistry. General introduction: The meaning and scope of chemistry. drug research. Understand the laws of composition. Dalton's atomic theory: concepts of elements, atoms and molecules. Isotopes (atoms) and molecular masses, molar concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical formulas and molecular formulas. Stoichiometry and calculations based on chemical reactions.

(i) Precision and Accuracy:

Quantities and their measurements in chemistry, significant figures, SI units.

(ii) Analysis of dimensions:

Conversion of units, use of values ​​and units.

(iii) The concept of atom with fixed properties to explain the laws of chemical association. Study atoms. Dalton's atomic theory: the main assumptions of the theory; its limitations.

Law of Chemical Combination:

  • Conservation of mass.
  • The law of a particular relationship.
  • The law of multiples.
  • The law of reciprocal proportionality.
  • Gay Lussacs volumenlov para gasser.

Statements, explanations and simple questions based on these laws.

(iv) Atomic (isotopic mass) and molecular mass.

Relative molecular mass and molarity:

The atomic mass unit is one of the experimentally determined units. It is equal to 1/12 the mass of the carbon-12 isotope. Numerical problems based on the concept of mole, Avogadro's number and molar volume.

(v) Empirical and molecular formula: Based on the previous values.

(vi) Chemical equivalent, calculated at normal volume. C=12.00 should be used as a standard to express atomic mass. Equivalent represents the ability of an element to combine with standard elements like H, Cl, O, Ag, etc. equivalent variable. The relationship between gram equivalent weight, gram equivalent weight, gram molecular weight, and valency. Determination of equivalents of acids, bases, salts, oxidants and reducers. (No experimental details required.) Terminology used in volume calculations should be discussed, such as percentage (w/w and w/v), normality, molarity, molarity, mole fraction, etc. Students should understand formulas, normality, and the molarity equation.

Simple calculations for the above topics.

(vii) Chemical reactions: stoichiometric calculations based on mass-mass, mass-volume, volume-volume and limiting reagent relationships.

70 points
2. atomic structure Discover elementary particles (electrons, protons and neutrons), atomic numbers, isotopes and isobars. Thomson's model and its limitations. Rutherford's experimental model and its limitations. The dual nature of matter and light. Bohr's atomic model and its limitations (Broglie's equation, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle), concepts of layers, subshells, orbitals. Quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals. Rules for filling orbitals with electrons: aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund's maximum multiplicity rule. Electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half-filled and full orbitals.

(i) Modern cycle method

Mendeleev's periodic law, errors in Mendeleev's periodic table. pros and cons. Modern periodic law (atomic number as the basis for the classification of elements).

(ii) The periodic table in long form. General characteristics of the groups and periods. Divide the periodic table into s, p, d, and f blocks. IUPAC nomenclature for Z >100 elements

(iii) Periodic trends in the properties of the elements.

Atomic radius, ionic radius, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, metallic and non-metallic properties.

  • Periodic properties such as valence electrons, atomic and ionic radius and their variation in groups and periods.
  • The terms ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, and electronegativity should be given and their variation across groups and periods discussed.
  • Factors affecting these periodic properties (atomic number, screening effects and shading effects, number of outermost orbital electrons) and their variation across groups and periods.

(iv) Periodic trends in chemical properties - periodicity in valence or oxidation states. Abnormal properties of the elements of the second period. Diagonal relationship; Acidity and basicity of the oxides.

uses:The latest IUPAC recommendations for group numbers to follow. The numbers 1 – 18 replace the old symbols I – VIII. More details can be found at the end of the syllabus.
3. Classification of elements and periodicity of properties The meaning of the classification; study of Mendeleev's periodic law and its limitations; Modern periodic law and the periodic table in its current form lead to periodic trends in the properties of elements: atomic radius, ionic radius, valence, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity sex. Nomenclature for elements with atomic numbers greater than 100.

(i) Subatomic particles (electrons, protons and neutrons) and their charge and mass: Dalton's concept of indivisibility of atoms does not exist. Atoms are made up of subatomic elementary particles. Generation and properties of cathode rays. Generation and properties of anode rays. Chadwick's experiment to discover the neutron and its properties.

(ii) Rutherford nuclear model based on the scattering experiment: Rutherford scattering experiment. nuclear discovery Rutherford model of the atomic nucleus. Defects in the Rutherford model. Electromagnetic wave theory and its limitations (black body radiation and photoelectric effect) Planck's quantum theory.

The above values ​​take precedence.

(iii) Type of spectrum: emission and absorption spectra. Band and line spectra will be discussed.

(iv) Bohr's atomic model. Assumptions of Bohr's theory - based on Planck's quantum theory. Advantages of the Bohr atomic model and interpretation of the hydrogen spectrum. Calculations based on the Rydberg formula. Numerical values ​​for atomic Bohr radius, orbital velocities and energies (no derivation needed).

Defects in the Bohr model.

(v) Quantum mechanical models of atoms - simple mathematical treatment. Quantum numbers; only shape, size, and orientation of the s, p, and d orbitals (no branching). aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle, Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity. Electronic configuration of the element in the form of subshells s, p, d, f.

  • deBroglie equation. worth.
  • Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. worth.
  • Schrödinger wave equation - physical meaning of ψ and |ψ| 2.
  • Quantum number: The quantum number type, shape, size, and orientation of the s, p, and d subshells. Information obtained in terms of distances between electrons from the nucleus, nodes, flat and radial nodal probability curves, electron energies, number of electrons present in orbitals and orbitals.
  • Principle of structure, rule (n+l).
  • Pauli exclusion principle.
  • Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity
  • Electronic configuration of elements and ions in the form of s, p, d, f subshells and stability of half-filled and fully-filled orbitals.
4. Chemical Bonds and Molecular Structure Valence electrons, ionic bond characteristics, covalent bonds to ionic bonds, covalent bonds, bond parameters, Lewis structures, polar characteristics of covalent bonds, VSEPR theory, covalent molecular geometry, valence bond theory involving s, p, and The concept of hybridization of d orbitals and the shape of some simple molecules. Coordinate key. Molecular orbital theory for homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative concepts only). Resonance and hydrogen bonds.

(i) Kossel-Lewis chemical bonding method. The octet rule, its application to the electrovalent and covalent bond.

(ii) Electrovalent or ionic bonds: Lewis structures of NaCl, Li2O, MgO, CaO, MgF2 and Na2S. Definition of ionic bonds. Necessary conditions for the formation of ionic bonds, such as: - Low metal ionization enthalpy.

- High enthalpy of electron gain for non-metals.

- High network energy.

- Electronegativity difference between reacting atoms.

All these points should be discussed in detail. Formation of elemental cations and anions and their positions in the periodic table. variable valence; Reasons for variable valence, ie. due to inert electron pair effects and unstable nuclei, using suitable examples. Calculation of the network enthalpy (Born-Haber cycle). Characteristics of the price key.

(iii) Covalent bonds: bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bonds, shape. Sigma and pi bonds, for example, formation of ammonia, nitrogen, ethylene, acetylene, and carbon dioxide. Definition of covalent bond, conditions under which covalent bond is formed, types of covalent bond, ie. single bond, double bond, and triple bond. Sigma and pi keys: H2, Europa2, ñ2.Classification of covalent bonds based on atomic electronegativity - polar and nonpolar covalent bonds, dipole moments. CH formation4ammoniacal nitrogen3, h2O, ethane, ethylene, acetylene and CO2etc and its electronic dot structure or Lewis structure. Characteristics of covalent compounds. Comparison of electricity price and covalence. Variable covalence ratios, such as phosphorus 3 and 5 and sulfur 2, 4, 6 and chlorine 1, 3, 5 and 7. The formal charge of the ion.

(iv) Deviation from the octet rule and Fajan's rule. Definition of octet rules. The octet rule failed due to an incomplete octet or more octets than the relevant sample. Fajan Rules: Declarations, electricity price conditions and covalence. Polar and nonpolar bonds must be connected by Fajan's rules.

(v) valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory; hybridization and shape of the molecules: only the hybridization of the s, p, and d orbitals is involved. The concept of electron pair repulsion and molecular shapes are used with appropriate examples. Hybridization and Molecular Shape – Definition, orbital hybridization involving s, p, and d orbitals (using suitable examples).

(vi) Molecular orbital theory: qualitative treatment of homonuclear diatomic molecules from the first two periods (hydrogen to neon), energy level diagrams, bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals, bond order, O paramagnetism2molecular. relative stability of O2, Europa2-, Europa2 2 -, Europa2 +and N2, ñ2 +, ñ2 -, ñ2 2-.

(vii) Coordination or coordinate covalent bonds, eg formation of chlorine oxyacids: Coordination or coordinate covalent bonds: Definitions, hydrochloric acid, hydrochloric acid, perchloric acid, ammonium ion, hydronium ion, nitric acid, ozone formation.

(viii) Resonance of simple inorganic molecules: Resonance of simple inorganic molecules such as ozone, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions and nitrate ions.

(ix) Hydrogen bonds: Hydrogen fluoride, water (ice), alcohol, etc. can be considered. Hydrogen Bonds: Definition, Types, Conditions Under Which Hydrogen Bonds Form, Examples of Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonds, Detailed Consideration of Hydrogen Fluoride, Water, Ice, and Ethanol. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds.

5. State of matter: gas and liquid The state of matter and its properties to establish the concept of molecules. Boyle's law, Charles' law, Gay-Lussac's law, Avogadro's law, Avogadro's number, ideal behavior of gases and derivation of the ideal gas equation. Kinetic theory of gases, kinetic energy and molecular speed (basic concepts). Deviation from ideal behavior, van der Waals equation, gas liquefaction, critical temperature. Liquid state: vapor pressure, viscosity and surface tension (only qualitative concepts, without mathematical derivation).

(i) Intermolecular interactions (van der Waals forces), types of van der Waals forces, melting and boiling points.

(ii) Naturgasloven.
Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Absolute Temperature, Pressure Temperature Law, Avogadro's Law and Avogadro's Constant. The relationship between moles and Avogadro's number. Simple number problems based on the above laws. Dalton's law, Graham's law of diffusion. Dalton's law of partial pressures and its applications. Graham's law of diffusion and its applications. Based on the numerical questions above.

(iii) Equation of ideal gases and its application. Ideal gas equation PV = nRT; its use in calculating relative molecular mass and calculating R-value.

(iv) Kinetic theory of gases. Properties of gases, comparison of solids, liquids and gases. Gas properties based on the kinetic theory of gases. The assumptions of the kinetic theory must be discussed to explain the gas laws. Concepts of mean, root mean square, and most likely rate (no numbers required). The non-ideal behavior of gases, ie. deviations from the ideal gas equation can be discussed both at low temperature and at high temperature and high pressure. Van der Waals equation (P + a/V2) (V-b) = RT for one mole of gas. (No numbers required.) Both pressure correction and volume correction can be taken into account. The meaning and units of "a" and "b" (van der Waals constants). Liquid gas, critical temperature.

(v) Liquid state: vapor pressure, viscosity and surface tension. Only qualitative ideas, without mathematical derivations.

6. chemical thermodynamics

(i) Introduction, concepts, types of systems, environments, extensive and intensive properties and state functions. Types of systems: ideal systems, real systems, isolated systems, closed systems, open systems. The importance of the environment. System properties: macroscopic properties, dense properties and extensive properties. system status. The main processes that the system undergoes: reversible, irreversible, adiabatic, isothermal, isobaric, isovolumetric and cyclical. The meaning of thermodynamic equilibrium. Importance of thermodynamic processes.

(ii) First law of thermodynamics and its meaning, work, heat, internal energy, enthalpy (ΔU or ΔE and ΔH), heat capacity and specific heat. Hess's law of constant summation of heat, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase change, ionization, dissolution, and dilution. Meaning: The internal energy of the system, the work done by the system, the work done by the environment at constant temperature, and the heat absorbed by the system and the environment at constant temperature. A convention for the sign of internal energy changes, heat given off or gained, or work done by a surrounding system or environment. List functions and route functions: meaning and examples. Internal energy change, work, and heat absorption take place in a cycle. Internal energy changes in isolated and non-isolated systems. The total internal energy change of the system and the environment. Mathematical statement of the first law. The meaning of the first law of thermodynamics. Enthalpy Demand: Constant Pressure or Open Vessel Process. Enthalpy - A thermodynamic property, state function. Mathematical form of enthalpy. Heat - Energy in transfer. Conditions for heat transfer. Limitations of converting heat energy into work. The condition in which heat transfer stops, units of heat. The meaning of work, working capacity, type of work. Reversible and irreversible mathematical forms of work. The difference between reversible and irreversible work done - graphically. The relationship between CV and the change of internal energy. The relationship between Cp and Cv. Definitions below: Heat of Reaction: Heat of Formation – Standard heat of formation, heat of solution, heat of dilution, heat of neutralization, heat of combustion. The constancy of the heat of neutralization: experimental verification in the case of strong acids and bases. Reasons for this observation: ion neutralization and heat generation. Definition of fuel value. An account of Hess's law and its applications. Questions based on Hess's Law.

(iii) Second law of thermodynamics and its meaning, spontaneity of chemical changes; entropy, free energy. Inadequacy of the First Law and Necessity of the Second Law; ideas about reversible (recurring), spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes; physical meaning of entropy; state functions instead of route functions. Entropy change, reversible isothermal process and irreversible process in the universe. Significance of heat death, Gibb free energy and Helmholtz free energy of the system. The relationship between the Gibb free energy and the Helmholtz free energy. The relationship between the change in Gibbs free energy and the equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction. A criterion for defining the spontaneity of chemical changes in terms of Gibb free energy. Note: Values ​​are based on the first law, second law, and Hess's law of thermodynamics.

(iv) Third law of thermodynamics: statements only. Self explanatory.

7. balance

(i) Chemical equilibrium.

Introduction to physical-chemical equilibrium and its characteristics Properties of dynamic equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constants, and factors that affect equilibrium. Le Chatelier's principle and its applications. irreversible and reversible reactions. Physical balance: solid-liquid, liquid-gas, solid-gas; characteristics of physical balance. Chemical equilibrium: Characteristics of chemical equilibrium; dynamic properties. Law of Mass Effect; equilibrium constant in the form of concentration Kc. gas reaction; equilibrium constant expressed in partial pressure Kp. Ratio of Kp to Kc (discharge required); characteristics of equilibrium constants; units of equilibrium constants; simple calculation of equilibrium constants and concentrations.

The following examples should be considered to show the maximum performance of a product:

- Synthesis of ammonia by the Haber process.

- Dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide.

- Hydrolysis of simple esters.

- The contact process for the production of sulfuric acid.

Le Chatelier's principle. Statements and explanations. The factors that affect chemical and physical equilibrium must be discussed in terms of Le Chatelier's principle.

- Changes in concentration.

- temperature change.

- Pressure changes.

- Catalytic effect.

- Add inert gas.

(ii) Introduction to ionic balance, electrolytes (strong and weak), non-electrolytes, ionization, degree of ionization of polyacids, acid strength, pH concept, pH indicators, buffer solutions, common ionic effects (with examples). Henderson equation, hydrolysis of salts, solubility and solubility product.

Ostwald's dilution law and its derivation. The strength of acids and bases is based on their dissociation constants. Problems based on Ostwald's law of dilution.

Arrhenius, Brönsted-Lowry and Lewis concepts of acids and bases, multilevel ionization of acids and bases and examples.

Ionic product of water: definition of solution, pH, pOH, pKw.

pH indicators and their choice in the titration. Numerical calculation of the previous concepts.

Common Ionic Effects: Definition, Examples (Acetic Acid and Sodium Acetate; Ammonium Hydroxide and Ammonium Chloride), Application in Salt Analysis.

Salt hydrolysis: pH formulas for strong acids and weak bases, weak acids and strong bases, salts of weak acids and weak bases, and solutions of these salts in water with suitable examples.

Buffer solutions: definition, examples, operation; his explanation is based on Le Chatelier's principle. Henderson's equation. Solubility products: Definition and application in the qualitative analysis of salts (cations of Groups II, III and IV).

Values ​​for pH, buffer solutions, solubility and solubility products.

8. redox reactions Concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, changes in the oxidation number, redox reactions in equilibrium (according to loss and gain of electrons). Use of redox in various chemical reactions.

- Based on the concept of oxidation and reduction of oxygen, hydrogen, electrons.

− Redox reactions - examples.

− Oxidation number: Slide rules, simple calculation of the oxidation state of molecules and ions as2besides2Europa7, trumpet2o2- 3, ETC.

− Oxidation and reduction in the form of a change in the oxidation number.

− Equilibrium of redox reactions in acidic and basic media by oxidation numbers and ion-electron methods.

9. hydrogen Hydrogen and its compounds: hydride, water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide. Position of hydrogen in the periodic table, appearance, isotopes, production, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrides (ionic-covalent and interstitial), hydrogen as fuel. The physical and chemical properties of water, soft and hard water, and the removal of water hardness and hard water. Hydrogen peroxide: Preparation from peroxides, structure, oxidative properties: Reaction with KI, PbS, acidified FeSO4Reductant - reacts with acidified KMnO4and chlorine gas. Calculate the strength of hydrogen peroxide.
10 S block elements (alkali and alkaline earth metals)

(i) Elements of Group 1 and Group 2

The general characteristics of groups 1 and 2 must include the following: physical condition; Electronic configuration; atomic and ionic radii; common oxidation states; that is to say. lithium, beryllium) the unique behavior of the first member; properties of oxides, hydroxides, hydrides, carbonates, nitrates, chlorides, sulfates.

(ii) Preparation and properties of some important compounds.

Sodium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide, Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Thiosulfate; Biological importance of sodium and potassium. Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate, Calcium Oxide, Calcium Hydroxide, Calcium Carbonate, Plaster and Cement. The industrial uses mentioned above, the biological importance of magnesium and calcium.

Group 1:

  • Sodium Chloride - Uses.
  • Sodium hydroxide: only based on the Castner-Kellner cell preparation principle. wear.
  • Sodium carbonate - Solvay process principles and equations. wear.
  • Baking Soda - Made from sodium carbonate. wear.
  • Sodium Thiosulfate - Made from sodium sulfite and its reaction with iodine, dilute acid, and silver nitrate. wear.
  • Group 2:

  • Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate: Made from magnesium oxide. thermal effect. wear
  • Calcium Oxide - Made from limestone; reacts with water, carbon dioxide and silica. wear.
  • Calcium Hydroxide - Manufactured and used from calcium oxide.
  • Calcium carbonate: preparation and use from calcium hydroxide.
  • Plaster of Paris - Made from plaster of paris. wear.
  • Cement manufacturing. wear.
  • 11 some elements of the p block

    (i) Group 13 elements

    General introduction, electronic configuration, appearance, property changes, oxidation states, chemical reaction trends, unusual properties of group 1 elements, boron: physical and chemical properties.

    (ii) Preparation and properties of some important compounds, borax, boric acid, borohydride, aluminum: reactions with acids and bases. Lewis acidity of boron halides; amphoteric properties of aluminum, alum. Borax: Reacts with water and hydrates compounds with heat (no preparation needed). Borax pearl test. Diborane - Preparation properties, structure and uses. Boric acid - preparation and thermal effect. Aluminum: Reacts with acids and bases. Alum - preparation and use.

    (iii) Elements of group 14

    General characteristics, electronic configuration, occurrence, property changes, oxidation states, chemical reaction trends, abnormal behavior of the first elements. Carbon chains, allotropes. Diamond-graphite and fullerene structure; decreased stability of the +2 oxidation state with respect to the effects of the inert pair.

    (iv) Some important connections; carbon and silicon oxides, silicon carbide, silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites. Preparation and Properties: Carbon Monoxide - Produced by incomplete combustion of coal. CO hazard. The reducing properties of CO. Carbon Dioxide: Made from limestone and coal, tested with limewater. wear. Silica - structure, comparison with carbon dioxide. wear. Silicon Carbide - Made from silicon dioxide. wear. Silicon tetrachloride: production and uses of silicon. Silicone - general manufacturing method. wear. Silicates - structure and applications. Zeolites - formulations and applications.

    12 Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles and Techniques General introduction, IUPAC classification and nomenclature of organic compounds and isomerism. Purification methods, qualitative and quantitative analysis. Displacement of electrons in covalent bonds: inductive effects, electron effects, resonance and hyperconjugation. Fission of homolytic and heterolytic bonds of covalent bonds: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

    (i) Introduction to Organic Chemistry:

    Theory of vitality, causes and meaning of separate study in organic chemistry, characteristics of carbon atoms (four valence), causes of a large number of organic compounds: coupling, isomerism and multiple bonding, etc.

    (ii) Classification of organic compounds: (definitions and examples): open-chain, closed-chain, homocyclic, heterocyclic, aromatic, alicyclic, homologous compounds and their characteristics, functional groups.

    (iii) IUPAC Rules of Nomenclature for Organic Compounds. Aliphatic, cycloaliphatic and aromatic compounds.

    (iv) Definition and classification of heterogeneity: structural heterogeneity: definition, classification, examples. Chain isomerism, positional isomerism, functional isomerism, metamerism, tautomerism: examples of the above. Stereoisomerism: Definition and classification, examples. Geometric heterogeneity: a definition. Conditions under which geometric isomerism of compounds occurs; types and examples, cis and trans, cis and trans. example. Optical isomerism: definition, Nicols, plane polarized light. Polarimeter. Method for measuring the angle of rotation. Specific rotation. Conditions for optical activity. d, l forms; racemic mixtures and externally balanced, internally balanced mesoforms. Example: lactic acid and tartaric acid.

    (v) Analysis of organic compounds:

    The detection (qualitative analysis) of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens and sulfur must consider the use of the Lassaigne test and the reactions involved in it.

    (vi) Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulfur and phosphorus: Estimation of carbon and hydrogen - Leipig method. Nitrogen estimation - Kjeldahl method. Estimation of halogen sulfur and phosphorus - the Carius method. Include numbers. Experimental details are needed.

    (vii) Types of chemical reactions and their mechanisms. 205 Substitution, Addition, Elimination Reactions: Definitions and Examples. Homolytic and heterolytic fission - definitions and examples. Free radicals, carbocations, carbanions (their reactivity and stability). Electrophiles and nucleophiles: definition and examples (including electrophiles and neutral nucleophiles). Induction, electronics, mesoscopic effects and hyperconjugation - definitions, examples.

    (viii) Free radicals and polar mechanisms include SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 mechanisms with respect to bond fission and new bond formation. Explain with relevant examples and conditions.

    13 hydrocarbon classification 1. Aliphatic hydrocarbons

    (i) Alkanes: nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (methane and ethane), physical properties, chemical properties, including free radical mechanisms of halogenation, combustion, and pyrolysis. Occurrence, conformation (sawhorse and Newman predictions for ethane). General methods of preparation: from sodium salts of carboxylic acids (Kolbe decarboxylation and electrolysis); from alcohols and haloalkanes (Wurtz reaction, Coreyhouse synthesis). From aldehydes and Grignard reagents. Physicochemical properties of alkanes. Physical properties: state, freezing point, melting point, boiling point, density. Chemical properties: flammable, reacts with chlorine (free radical mechanism), reacts with oxygen in the presence of catalysts (forms alcohols, aldehydes and carboxylic acids). Cyclization, aromatization, isomerization and pyrolysis. The use of alkanes.

    (ii) Nomenclature, structure, isomerism of the olefin (ethylene) double bond; manufacturing method; physical properties, chemical properties; hydrogen addition, halogen, water, hydrogen halide (Markonikov addition and physical effect of peroxidation), ozonolysis, oxidation, electrophilic addition mechanism. General methods of preparation: dehydration of alcohols, dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides (from orthodihalides), Kolbe electrolysis and alkynes. Physical properties: state, freezing point, melting point, boiling point, dipole moment, density. Chemical properties - Addition reactions (hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides, sulfuric acid, water). Mechanisms and examples of Markonikov rules and anti-Markonikov rules. Oxidation: complete combustion, hot and cold alkaline KMnO4 (Bayer's reagent), ozonolysis. polymerization. Setsev's rule and its application. Use of olefins.

    (iii) Alkynes: nomenclature, triple bond structure (acetylene), preparation methods, physical properties, chemical properties: acidity of alkynes, addition reactions: hydrogen, halogen, hydrogen halide and water. General method for the preparation of alkynes. Acetylene is produced from calcium carbide and natural gas. Kolbe dehydrohalogenation and electrolysis. Physical properties of alkynes: state of existence, freezing point, melting point, boiling point, density. Chemical properties of alkynes: addition reactions (hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water), acidity of alkynes, formation of acetylenes. Oxidation: complete combustion, hot and cold alkaline KMnO4 (Bayer's reagent), ozonolysis. polymerization. Use of alkynes. Identification test for alkanes, alkenes and alkynes.

    to some aroma

    Introduction, IUPAC Nomenclature, Benzene: Resonance, Aromaticity, Chemical Properties: Electrophilic Substitution Mechanism. Nitration, Sulfonation, Halogenation, Friedel Crafts Alkylation and Acylation, Direct Action of Functional Groups on Monosubstituted Benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity. Structure: Resonance structure of benzene (Kekule structure). Benzene: made from sodium benzoate and phenol. Physical properties: state of existence, freezing point, melting point, boiling point, density.

    Chemical properties:

    - Mechanical reactions of electrophilic substitution (halogenation, nitration, sulfonation).

    - Alkylering, acetylering - Friedel Crafts reaktion.undefinedundefined

    - Direct effects of substituents (o-, p- and m-) on electrophilic and nucleophilic substitution (with mechanisms). indefinite indefinite

    - Oxidation: catalytic oxidation, reaction with ozone. indefinite indefinite

    - Addition reactions with hydrogen, chlorine, bromine. indefinite indefinite

    - Pyrolysis (formation of biphenyl). indefinite indefinite

    The carcinogenicity and toxicity of benzene is debatable. wear.

    14 enviromental chemistryit's not clear Types of environmental pollution (air, water and soil pollution); types of pollutants: smog, acid rain; ozone layer depletion, greenhouse effect and global warming effect. Pollution by industrial waste, green chemistry as an alternative tool to reduce pollution; strategies to control environmental pollution. Gaseous pollutants: nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons; its sources, harmful effects and prevention; greenhouse effect and global warming; acid rain; polluting particles: smog, dust, smog, cooking fumes, mists; its sources, harmful effects and prevention. Water contaminants: pathogens, organic waste, chemical contaminants; its dangers and prevention. Soil contaminants: pesticides, herbicides. Green chemistry as an alternative tool to reduce pollution.

    internal evaluation

    Project work and actual documentation. 15 mark

    Project work - 10 points

    Candidates will creatively carry out a project/task choosing a chemistry topic. Teachers can assign or students can select the item of their choice. (See suggested topics at the end of the class XII syllabus).

    Suggested project work evaluation criteria:

    • Introduction/Purpose
    • content
    • Analytical aids/materials (graphs, data, structures, pie charts, histograms, graphs, etc.)
    • Analytical aids/materials (graphs, data, structures, pie charts, histograms, charts, etc.)
    • promotion meeting
    • bibliography

    Practical dossier - 5 points

    Teachers must assess students against a portfolio of physics practices that they maintain throughout the school year.


    Reduced Curriculum 2022-23


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